Description of morphological characters of lettuce lactuca sativa l. Cos is so called as it is thought it originated on the greek island of the same name kos. Its leaves are bright to dark green, with red tinges in the red romaine varieties. Seeds can be sown directly in the garden and will mature in about 6570 days. Recommended varieties of cos lettuce include cimarron red, cuore, flashy trout back, green towers, parris island cos, red eye, tall guzman elite and musena.
Growers looking to expand their lettuce offerings beyond commonly produced greenhouse varieties usually have to do their own trials looking for field varieties that can be adapted to a greenhouse environment. Stem lettuce forms an elongated seedstalk used mainly in stewed, creamed and chinese dishes. And there are so many more types of lettuce to explore. These nongmo seeds grow upright into tall heads of lettuce that are ready to harvest in 65 to 70 days. Recommended varieties of cos lettuce include cimarron red, cuore. This is the second most commonly grown hydroponic lettuce type behind the butterhead. Romaine or cos lettuce is upright in form and grows 8 or 9 inches tall. Thurinus pelleted lettuce seed johnnys selected seeds. Growers in an area where both climate zones can occur are advised to conduct trials to identify the most preferable varieties. Thirty heads of iceberg lettuce harvested at once can present a major storage problem. Germination takes place at a minimum of 5 c, has an. Under application for inclusion in the ec common catalogue of. Parris island cos romaine lettuce seeds can be planted close together for a long harvest of baby leaves for gourmet salads. The parris island cos lettuce is a romaine lettuce, which means it is among the most nutritious of lettuce varieties.
There are many other varieties of cos lettuce, some whiteseeded and others blackseeded. Fordhook and dark green boston mature in 80 days and are known for their excellent flavor. Other types 810 apart in rows 1218 apart for fullsize heads or 6 apart for mini heads. Crunchy lettuce crunchy lettuce represents a very interesting alternative to cos or iceberg. Varieties to try include paris island cos and valmaine. Harvest by removing outer leaves or the entire head. Lettuce seeds speciality commercial vegetable seed. There are five distinct types of lettuce leaf also known as looseleaf, cos or romaine, crisphead. Transplant iceberg and romaine lettuce 1012 apart, in rows 18 apart. The parris island cos is resistant to mosaic virus, and the leaves have a mildly sweet flavor. If you have any spare space anywhere in your tunnel or. Cos lettuce have upright leaves with the outer ones being green and the inner ones frequently blanched to a lighter colour to form a crispy heart.
Romaine or cos lettuce lactuca sativa forms elongated heads. Diseases of lettuce giiy weston bohn american gardeners grow several types of lettucethe loose leaf varieties, cos or romaine, butterhead, and iceberg. Varieties suitable for processed romaine may not be suitable. Evaluating fieldbred lettuce varieties for hydroponic. It can grow in hotter weather for short intervals, but as temperatures remain above 80 degrees, the lettuce will start to bolt into seeding. Romaine may be started directly in the garden by using seeds or transplants.
Leaf and bibb lettuces do well in hotbeds or greenhouses during. Check out this video to find varieties of lettuce and salad greens that you can grow in containers for an urban. Jose agriculturist ii bpinational crop research and. They should be planted in rows set about 36 inches 91 cm. The five varieties of lettuce that can be grown in the garden include the following. Recommended varieties of cos lettuce include cimarron red, cuore, flashy trout back, green. For this reason, leaf lettuce is generally more perishable than head varieties.
How to grow cos lettuce guide to growing cos lettuce. Dating back to 1952, this heirloom lettuce is named after the actual parris island off the coast of south carolina. There are five distinct types of lettuce leaf also known as looseleaf, cos or romaine, crisphead, butterhead and stem also called asparagus lettuce or celtuce. Outer leaves are dark green, less crispy, and slightly less flavorful. Any classification such as this is open to interpretation although the varieties listed below are generally held to belong to the cos type. Lettuce grows best in temperatures of 45 to 80 degrees. Crisphead lettuce, more commonly known as iceberg, has a tight head of crisp leaves. Although romaine is the most common name in north america, this variety will occasionally be referred to as cos lettuce. We also like bibb lettuce sauteed with the earliest peas in spring, with a dash of mint. Heirloom lettuce varieties organic gardening mother. Leaf lettuce is best adapted to arkansas conditions and produces crisp leaves loosely arranged on the stalk. Much of the commercial lettuce breeding is focused on outdoor field production.
The leaves have stronger flavor than looseleaf varieties, and crunchy midribs. Lettuce is generally a rich source of vitamins k and a, though the nutritional quality varies, depending on the variety. The experimental greenhouse for hydroponic lettuce is located in sgravenzande, in the heart of the westland, the large glasshouse district of the netherlands. Varieties specifically developed for greenhouse hydroponics disease resistance high degree of coloration varieties can be selected for cool and low light winter conditions or warmer season cropping. Heirloom romaine lettuce seeds paris island cos non. There are opportunities for romaine lettuce sales at all direct farm. A pale, round, tightly packed lettuce which has crisp leaves with a refreshing flavour. Vitamin c content of different types of lettuce varieties. This rhs award of garden merit cultivar grows well under cloches and also has excellent root aphid resistance more info. Floricos 83 is a line recently released by florida ifas. Lettuce varieties learn about the different types of lettuce.
Of course lettuces are the basics for innumerable salads. British iceberg lettuce is available from may through to october and reaches the stores less than 24 hours after picking. As with batavia lettuce, there are several varieties of oak leaf lettucegreen, red, bronzebut they are all looseleaf lettuces, meaning the leaves stay loose and attached only at the base as they grow instead of forming tight, compact heads like iceberg lettuce or cabbage. Just make sure to select coolertemperature varieties. Slowbolting or heatresistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettucegrowing season. Department of agriculture reissued farmers bulletin 1609, lettuce growing, and listed the leading varieties of lettuce then under cultivation. Lettuce color for commercial cultivars varies from a yellowgreen to dark red and all colors in between. Looseleaf looseleaf lettuce produces an open rosette of leaves loosely arranged on the stalk. The butterhead varieties are generally small, semiheading types that have tender, soft leaves and a delicate flavor. Lobjoits green cos is considered by many to be the best lettuce that you can grow or eat. Three varieties of romaine that do well here are parris island cos, valmaine, and dark green cos.
The tightly folded leaves are greenish white in the center and medium green on the outside. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps. Pdf verte and romaine lettuce varieties lactuca sativa show. Romaine lettuces are firmer than looseleaf lettuces, with a crispy, yet tender, center rib. Comprehensive brochures can also be viewed or downloaded in pdf format using the links next to each variety, where available. Cos and cutting have a significant content of ascorbic acid, vitamins a. Below are product guides for each of starke ayres lettuce seeds speciality varieties.
Pdf in this study, we report on the relationship between individual antioxidant carotenoids, phenolic fractions, and flavonoids and attenuating nacl. It grows in cool weather, but some varieties are heat tolerant. Cos cos lettuce, also known as romaine lettuce, has long narrow foliage with an upright growth habit and loose elongated heads. Lettuce loose leaf growing guide crop rotation group.
Romaine varieties of lettuce can be kept in a refrigerator for up to a. Lettuce lactuca sativa is an annual plant of the daisy family, asteraceae. Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and are commonly served as the base of green salads. The large and narrow leaves grow upright to around 89 inches and form a loafshaped head. Leafy greens, sometimes used to complement a lettuce selection, include bok choy, spinach and swiss chard.
Leafy green vegetables lettuce butterhead crisphead cos. Romaine or cos is less commonly grown by gardeners, but a very nutritious lettuce that deserves attention. Careful variety selection is important for hot weather plantings. This innovative lettuce offers the best of both worlds. An overview of lettuce production systems and cultivars. The leaves are crisp, tender, and sweet with the lighter, inner leaves being the crispiest. Most of the commercial acreage of lettuce is in the southwestern states, where lettuce, most of it the iceberg type, is grown the year around and. Cos refers to a greek island located off the southwestern coast of turkey, where this lettuce variety is said to have. Romaine has crisp, sturdy leaves that are used in caesar salads.
Often found in the local salad bar and a virtual staple in the delicious blt, its actually one of the more difficult lettuce varieties to grow. Leaf guide the british leafy salad association web site. Most of the romaine currently sold to wholesale salad companies consists of varieties that have been bred for western and southwestern u. Also called cos lettuce, it has been cultivated for more than 5000 years. At maturity typically 7075 days, the leaves can reach heights of 10 or so, with a dark outer coloring and white heart lower down the head. Romaine lettuce variety trials, 2009 fresh heart 4140rz. It can be planted between widely spaced crops such as courgettes and can be harvested before the courgette needs that space. Romaine lettuce is known by many names, including cos lettuce, roman lettuce and manchester lettuce. These form a tall, elongated head and have a leaf shaped somewhat like the bowl of a spoon. Lettuce, parris island cos burpee seeds and plants.
Smaller and more compact than most other romaines, this excellent variety forms elongated 20cm 8in heads with self folding leaves. Looseleaf, or bunching lettuce does not form heads. Smallheaded varieties are good choices for succession plantings. Parris island, or cos lettuce, is a popular variety of romaine lettuce, and is recommended for its crispy, flavorful leaves. It may be started indoors for an even longer season. Head weight and yield of several romaine and leafy lettuce varieties grown at the uh. One important key to wholesale production in kentucky will be selecting varieties adapted to our local climate. Lettuce is hardy and can be planted as early as the soil can be worked. This dark leafy green contains lutein and xeazanthin, carotenoids that help keep eyes healthy.
Cos or romaine forms an upright, elongated head and is an excellent addition to salads and sandwiches. What is parris island cos how to grow parris island cos. Youll often see it in baby lettuce, mesclun, and spring mixes because of its tenderness. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce, annual leaf vegetable of the aster family. Semishade, a cool sunny spot or interplanted between other crops. Their flavor is sweeter than the other types of lettuce. Some types and varieties of lettuce withstand heat better than others. Dont look for a head on them because the leaves branch from a single stalk. There is a considerable amount of variation in leaf color within.
Cos romaine lettuces form open, upright heads of deeply colored leaves. Lettuce, a coolseason vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Cos, or romaine lettuce forms a more upright, loose head. These test guidelines apply to all varieties of lactuca sativa l. Lettuce, cos little gem is an ideal plant for filling in gaps. Four botanical varieties of lettuce are cultivated.
Romaine is a coolseason crop that is planted in early spring or late summerfall. An overview of lettuce production systems and cultivars used in hydroponics and protected culture in florida 4 looseleaf, leaf, or cutting. Growing parris island cos is no different than growing any lettuce plant. Romaine lettuces have an upright growth habit that makes them more resistant to frost damage than lettuces with a more horizontal leaf growth pattern. Butterhead or boston lettuce tends to form smaller, less firm heads, with soft, waxy leaves. Butterheads develop a light yellow, buttery appearance. One variety, the woju ts, or asparagus lettuce celtuce, is grown for. Identification and quantification of selected metabolites in differently pigmented leaves of lettuce lactuca sativa l. Lettuce varieties, types of lettuce, varieties of lettuce. Nearly all commercially produced leaf lettuce in the. Cos lettuce little gem is one of the earliest varieties to mature, producing small compact plants which are packed with a crisp, sweet heart. Flavorful palecreamy green heart is surrounded by thick green outer leaves on enormous upright plants. Most soil types but best if its moisture retentive with some dug in compost.713 782 1275 31 645 1010 1187 486 237 1185 70 1206 771 671 704 544 545 505 857 258 1454 277 1133 1091 1315 144 1275 1462 699 365 1342 208 1489 206 224 1395 952 130 783 1117 1036 200 709 1309 1001 565 1295 374