Selected virus receptors adenovirus coxsackievirus echovirus epsteinbarr virus hiv 1 measles virus parvovirus poliovirus rhinovirus car car, cd55 integrin vla2, cd55 cd21 cd4, ccr5, cxcr4 cd46 erythrocyte p ag pvr icam1 steps in viral replication. A retrovirus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hiv 1, was subsequently identified as the causative agent of what has since become one of the most devastating infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history barresinoussi et al. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv british society for. Not all virus infections produce a protective immune response in this way. Hiv voice of the patient food and drug administration.
The virus destroys a type of white blood cell in the immune system called a thelper cell, and makes copies of itself inside these cells. The initial virus or small cluster of viruses that succeeds in catalyzing hiv mucosal infection figure 5. Hiv window period the window period for hiv tests depending on the test technology being utilized. Art changes the prognosis and can reverse the inevitable progression through the clinical stages.
Human immunodeficiency virus hiv jama jama network. Patients infected with hiv during the active phase of viral replication had a. Hiv 1 is transmitted through direct contact with hiv infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, and vaginal fluids, or from a mother who has hiv 1 to her child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding through breast milk. Infection can cause by either hsv type 1 hsv1 or hsv type 2 hsv2, and present as oral herpes a. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv screening and testing guide advances in human immunodeficiency virus hiv treatment have slowed the progression of the disease to such a degree that hiv infection is now understood to be a chronic, manageable condition enabling more people with hiv to live healthy, long, and active lives. They may, or may not, have signs or symptoms of illness but are still infectious to others.
It has been theorized that the virus originated from monkeys during the. Abstrak tingginya angka hiv aids, hilangnya masa produktif dari penderita berdampak pada kehilangan usia produktif di indonesia. This is known as escape mutation as the viral epitopes escape recognition by the host immune response. Penetration second step enveloped viruses penetrate cells through fusion of viral. Hal ini disebabkan karena perilaku berisiko yang salah satunya terjadi dikalangan anak usia sekolah dan merupakan. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv british society for immunology. Food and drug administration s fdas patientfocused drug development initiative. Hiv means human immune deficiency virus and its rising incidence leading to aids acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been posing grave globally to the lives of people especially women. Get tested and treated for hepatitis c hcv, hbv, hiv, and other sexually transmitted infections stis such as chlamydia or herpes. Cmv infection is defined as virus isolation or detection of viral. Hiv is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus an overview sciencedirect.
This is when your bodys immune system puts up a fight. Deutschosterreichische leitlinien zur postexpositionellen. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv disease resulting in infectious and parasitic diseases. The strains of hiv 1 can be classified into four groups. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv infection, the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome aids has become a significant threat to global public health faster than any previous epidemic mann and tarantola 1996. By 1986 lav and htlviii were accepted to be the same virus and montagniers and gallos viruses were renamed human immunodeficiency virus hiv. Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced disease. Molecular virology of hiv 1 and current antiviral strategies paul a. Its called acute retroviral syndrome or primary hiv infection.
The human immunodeficiency virus hiv is grouped to the genus. The use of occupational pep opep for case management for persons with possible hiv exposures occurring in health care settings are not addressed in this guideline. It further elaborates on the structure, multiplication, and classification of hiv virus. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv is the virus that causes aids. The classification system used to describe various stages of early hiv infection and based on the timing and results of diagnostic tests figure 4. Get vaccinated for hepatitis b virus hbv and hepatitis a virus hav. Over time, hiv can weaken a persons immune system by infecting cells that fight infection. Types of hiv virus there are two types of hiv virus.
Patients with aids, which is the final stage of hiv infection, have unusual diseases found in people with impaired immune systems such as kaposis sarcoma, a type of cancer, and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hiv 1 is most common in subsaharan africa and throughout the world. The other three groups n, o and p are quite uncommon. Hiv human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that only affects human beings a person develops hiv if the virus gets into his or her bloodstream and begins making more and more of itself, or reproducing. Hiv 1 is more virulent and more infective than hiv 2, 20 and is the cause of the majority of hiv infections globally. Fast facts hiv is a virus that a persons body cannot get rid of, even with treatment. Most people develop detectable hiv antibodies within 23 to. Lythgo over 40 million people are currently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus hiv, and over 25 million deaths have been attributed to the virus since the beginning of the epidemic. Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure. Hiv 2 is most often found in west central africa, parts of europe and india.
National guidelines for hiv testing 1 overview of hiv infection introduction this chapter describes the history and present status of the hiv epidemic in india. Hiv is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the bodys immune system, specifically the cd4 cells. Herpes simplex virus hsv is a common cause of ulcerative skin disease in both immunecompromised and immunecompetent individuals. Incubation period the time elapsed between exposure to a bacteria or virus and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. The human immunodeficiency virus hiv is grouped to the genus lentivirus within the family of retroviridae, subfamily orthoretrovirinae. Having stis puts you at greater risk of also becoming infected with hiv through sexual contact. Unaids report on the global aids epidemic 2012 pdf in engleza. Aids is the most advanced stage of hiv infection hiv is spread through contact with the blood, semen, preseminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of a person with hiv. Hiv human immunodeficiency virus infection kaiser permanente. Hiv 1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both lymphadenopathy associated virus lav and human tlymphotropic virus 3 htlviii. It also discusses the immunopathogenesis and factors affecting the progression of hiv disease. The persons immune system reacts to the antigens parts of the virus by producing antibodies cells that fight the virus. On the basis of genetic characteristics and differences in the viral antigens, hiv is classified into the types 1 and 2 hiv 1, hiv 2.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hiv1, the cause of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids, is a zoonotic infection of staggering proportions and social impact. Hiv evades the immune system by constantly changing the amino acid sequence of the proteins on the surface of the virion. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv, a member of the retrovirus family, is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids. Group o represents up to 5% of infections in several west and central african countries, and group n and p have been rarely identified in cameroon. By the early 1990s, many reports had accumulated of. All types of kaposis sarcoma are due to infection with human herpes virus 8 hhv8, which is transmitted sexually or viabloodorsaliva. Unlike some other viruses, the human body cant get rid of hiv completely, even with treatment. The following are the causes through a person can get affected with an hiv and aids. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome aids has been with us for three decades now.
One of the two types of hiv, the virus that causes aids. The pandemic is dominated by group m, which is composed of subtypes a j. Department of health and human services national institutes of health from the director. The time between exposure to hiv and when it becomes detectable in the blood is called the hiv window period. Molecular virology of hiv1 and current antiviral strategies. But they may have symptoms within 2 to 6 weeks after theyve gotten the virus. Hiv is a virus that attacks cells in the immune system, which is our bodys natural defence against illness. Hiv human immunodeficiency virus is the virus that can cause aids.1172 1125 444 451 1103 846 882 848 336 1406 1527 1470 1408 1209 532 415 81 413 596 577 20 602 911 577 1053 253 842 1107 568 615 572 966 309 1252 452 1159 49